Initial Upper Palaeolithic Homo sapiens from Bacho Kiro Cave, Bulgaria

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  • Jean Jacques Hublin
  • Nikolay Sirakov
  • Vera Aldeias
  • Shara Bailey
  • Edouard Bard
  • Vincent Delvigne
  • Elena Endarova
  • Yoann Fagault
  • Helen Fewlass
  • Mateja Hajdinjak
  • Bernd Kromer
  • Ivaylo Krumov
  • João Marreiros
  • Naomi L. Martisius
  • Lindsey Paskulin
  • Virginie Sinet-Mathiot
  • Matthias Meyer
  • Svante Pääbo
  • Vasil Popov
  • Zeljko Rezek
  • Svoboda Sirakova
  • Matthew M. Skinner
  • Geoff M. Smith
  • Rosen Spasov
  • Sahra Talamo
  • Thibaut Tuna
  • Lukas Wacker
  • Arndt Wilcke
  • Nikolay Zahariev
  • Shannon P. McPherron
  • Tsenka Tsanova

The Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in Europe witnessed the replacement and partial absorption of local Neanderthal populations by Homo sapiens populations of African origin1. However, this process probably varied across regions and its details remain largely unknown. In particular, the duration of chronological overlap between the two groups is much debated, as are the implications of this overlap for the nature of the biological and cultural interactions between Neanderthals and H. sapiens. Here we report the discovery and direct dating of human remains found in association with Initial Upper Palaeolithic artefacts2, from excavations at Bacho Kiro Cave (Bulgaria). Morphological analysis of a tooth and mitochondrial DNA from several hominin bone fragments, identified through proteomic screening, assign these finds to H. sapiens and link the expansion of Initial Upper Palaeolithic technologies with the spread of H. sapiens into the mid-latitudes of Eurasia before 45 thousand years ago3. The excavations yielded a wealth of bone artefacts, including pendants manufactured from cave bear teeth that are reminiscent of those later produced by the last Neanderthals of western Europe4–6. These finds are consistent with models based on the arrival of multiple waves of H. sapiens into Europe coming into contact with declining Neanderthal populations7,8.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNature
Volume581
Pages (from-to)299-302
ISSN0028-0836
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

ID: 241529493