Inequitable Gains and Losses from Conservation in a Global Biodiversity Hotspot

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

  • Philip J. Platts
  • Marije Schaafsma
  • R. Kerry Turner
  • Brendan Fisher
  • Boniface P. Mbilinyi
  • Pantaleo K. T. Munishi
  • Taylor H. Ricketts
  • Ruth D. Swetnam
  • Antje Ahrends
  • Biniam B. Ashagre
  • Julian Bayliss
  • Roy E. Gereau
  • Jonathan M. H. Green
  • Rhys E. Green
  • Lena Jeha
  • Simon L. Lewis
  • Rob Marchant
  • Andrew R. Marshall
  • Sian Morse-Jones
  • Shadrack Mwakalila
  • Marco A. Njana
  • Deo D. Shirima
  • Simon Willcock
  • Andrew Balmford

A billion rural people live near tropical forests. Urban populations need them for water, energy and timber. Global society benefits from climate regulation and knowledge embodied in tropical biodiversity. Ecosystem service valuations can incentivise conservation, but determining costs and benefits across multiple stakeholders and interacting services is complex and rarely attempted. We report on a 10-year study, unprecedented in detail and scope, to determine the monetary value implications of conserving forests and woodlands in Tanzania’s Eastern Arc Mountains. Across plausible ranges of carbon price, agricultural yield and discount rate, conservation delivers net global benefits (+US$8.2B present value, 20-year central estimate). Crucially, however, net outcomes diverge widely across stakeholder groups. International stakeholders gain most from conservation (+US$10.1B), while local-rural communities bear substantial net costs (-US$1.9B), with greater inequities for more biologically important forests. Other Tanzanian stakeholders experience conflicting incentives: tourism, drinking water and climate regulation encourage conservation (+US$72M); logging, fuelwood and management costs encourage depletion (-US$148M). Substantial global investment in disaggregating and mitigating local costs (e.g., through boosting smallholder yields) is essential to equitably balance conservation and development objectives.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEnvironmental and Resource Economics
Number of pages25
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 17 Aug 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s).

    Research areas

  • Biodiversity hotspot, Conservation, Cost-benefit analysis, Distribution analysis, Opportunity costs, Tanzania

ID: 363442039