A strategic model of a host-microbe-microbe system reveals the importance of a joint host-microbe immune response to combat stress-induced gut dysbiosis

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Microbiomes provide key ecological functions to their host; however, most host-associated microbiomes are too complicated to allow a model of essential host-microbe-microbe interactions. The intestinal microbiota of salmonids may offer a solution since few dominating species often characterize it. Healthy fish coexist with a mutualistic Mycoplasma sp. species, while stress allows the spread of pathogenic strains, such as Aliivibrio sp. Even after a skin infection, the Mycoplasma does not recover; Aliivibrio sp. often remains the dominant species, or Mycoplasma-Aliivibrio coexistence was occasionally observed. We devised a model involving interactions among the host immune system, Mycoplasma sp. plus a toxin-producing pathogen. Our model embraces a complete microbiota community and is in harmony with experimental results that host-Mycoplasma mutualism prevents the spread of pathogens. Contrary, stress suppresses the host immune system allowing dominance of pathogens, and Mycoplasma does not recover after stress disappears.

Original languageEnglish
Article number912806
JournalFrontiers in Microbiology
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2022

    Research areas

  • bistability, mutualism, stress, pathogens, salmonids, microbiome, Mycoplasma sp, Aliivibrio sp, SALMON SALMO-SALAR, TROUT ONCORHYNCHUS-MYKISS, ATLANTIC SALMON, COMMUNITY, EVOLUTION, ANIMALS, DISEASE

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